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Importance and Critical Use of Biomedical Instrumentation & Signal Analysis

Medical engineering application in devices and mechanisms is known as biomedical instrumentation or Bioinstrumentation. This process is used to evaluate, measure, and treat biological conditions. The device focuses on multiple sensors to monitor the physiological attributes of human beings or animals.

The biomedical signal analysis removes the sound and noise and provides an accurate signal model. The signal analyses the various organs such as heart, brain, and muscles functions or dysfunction and predicts future functional or pathological events for such organs in the body.

The main objective  for using biomedical instrumentation and signal analysis is

  • Information gathering – Measurement of an event and interpreting a system
  • Diagnosis – Detection of pathological condition, malfunction, and abnormality

The signal analysis is used to evaluate the health condition of different persons and predict their treatment outcomes. Processing signals also achieve health monitoring in nanoseconds duration. 

Categories of Biomedical Signal Analysis

Important biomedical signal analysis techniques are classified into two types such as event-related potential and action-related potential. Electrocardiogram (ECG), electroneurogram (ENG), Electromyogram (EMG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) are examples of action potential.  The event-related potential is a non-invasive measurement of the electrical activity in the brain.

Biomedical signal analysis examples include

  • Blood pressure
  • Heart rate
  • Oxygen saturation levels
  • Blood glucose
  • Brain activity
  • Nerve conduction

These signals are analyzed and give doctors information to understand the human body and diagnose any abnormality detected. This process allows determining a patient’s health through non-invasive measures. As technology improves, signals through real-time monitoring give a better chance to manage chronic disease and early detection of strokes and heart attacks. Biomedical signals are beneficial in critical care setup as here patients need real-time monitoring.

Biomedical Instrumentation – Types and Uses

Biomedical instrumentation helps diagnose, treat and prevent diseases. Biological signals like ECG, EEG, ENG, EMG are measured by diagnosing with biomedical instruments. The results help doctors take necessary action. Concepts of electronics and measurement techniques are used to design medical devices and measure the signals.

Different types of Biomedical Instrumentation

The electrical signals produced in the human body are used in diagnostics, including EEG, ECG, and EMG. These devices have biosensors that convert a biological response into electrical signals for interpretation.   The biosensor technology is used in many devices such as

  • Stethoscope
  • Blood Pressure, Blood Glucose device
  • Thermometer and Pulse oximeter
  • Pregnancy test

Biomedical imaging processing is similar to biomedical signal processing are used in

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • XRAY
  • Ultrasonography
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
  • Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
  • Computed Tomography (CT)
  • Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

Conclusion

Biomedical instruments can be planted, for example, a pacemaker or wearable such as a pulse oximeter, ECG device, etc., or for smart tattoos. A stretchable electronic sensor is placed on the skin to measure the electric signals produced by the brain, heart, and muscles.

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